This research examines how the European Union promotes public health standards in its foreign policy and evaluates the effectiveness of such action. The study aims at two sub-objectives: an examination of the constitutional framework governing the EU’s public health field, with a particular emphasis on its external dimension, and an assessment of the factors influencing the effectiveness of the promotion of EU public health standards at the global level. While the research attempts to undertake a horizontal study of the EU public health field, it is illustrated by numerous case studies. These include the Union’s external promotion of tobacco-control legislation, its role in the fight against cross-border health threats, the balance of trade interests and public health in bilateral trade and investment agreements, and the position of the Union towards intellectual property rights and public health at the WTO. This research reveals that several factors influence the successful promotion of EU public health standards at the global level and proposes a number of measures that could enhance the external action of the Union in this field.